PTBBA is mainly used in the EU for the manufacture of thermal stabilisers in PVC. For this purpose, PTBBA is first converted into its metal salts (Metal-p-tert-butylbenzoate, Me-PTBB). According to ESPA (European Stabiliser Producers Association) six plants are using PTBBA for the production of liquid mixed metal stabilisers. The next two life-cycles stages (compounding and conversion) occur generally at one site. The mixed metal stabilisers are used entirely in the processing of plasticised PVC. ESPA indicates that liquid metal stabilisers are used in both major compounding methods and their subsequent conversion methods. Dry blending followed by calendering is the major use of these stabilisers. The second most important use of PTBBA in the EU is the use as process regulator (chain stop agent) in polymers industry for producing alkyd and polyester resins. PTBBA is added into the polymerisation step of resin production where it reacts covalently with the usual alkyd monomers. According to industry, PTBBA is added into the mixture of precursors in a share of 1-10 % w/w, but unreacted PTBBA is present only in very low concentrations (< 0.1 % w/w). It is therefore assumed that the downstream uses of resins are not relevant for the environmental risk assessment.